vineri, 10 octombrie 2008

Declaratia de independenta a Statelor Unite ale Americii

Cu 2 luni in urma am fost in Sacramento (capitala statului California) unde vizitand Muzeul Capitolului (in stanga) am cumparat o copie fidela a Declaratiei de Independenta a Statelor Unite ale Americii. Citind-o am realizat ca e unul din cele mai frumoase texte care mi-au cazut in mana, insa inainte de a transcrie cateva fragmente cred ca e important sa intelegem contextul in care au fost scrise.
In primavara anului 1776, rebeliunea armata impotriva abuzurilor Imperiului Britanic incepuse iar Delegatii Congresului Continental si-au dat seama ca se afla in fata unui moment de cotitura. Pamfletul lui Thomas Pain intitulat "Bunul Simt" (Common Sense) publicat in ianuarie 1776 indemna la actiuni indraznete.
Pe 7 iunie 1776, Congresmanul Richard Henry Lee s-a ridicat si a schimbat directia revolutiei. "A venit timpul, (a spus el), sa declaram ca aceste Colonii Unite sunt, si au dreptul sa fie, libere si State independente".
Congresul a insarcinat un comitet care l-a inclus pe John Adams, Thomas Jefferson si Benjamin Franklin, sa scrie justificarea independentei. Comitetul l-a ales pe Jefferson ca autor. La doar 33 ani, Jefferson isi castigase deja reputatia de a fi un scriitor exceptional. Dezvoltand ideile existente el a definit scopul: "to place before mankind the common sense of the subject, in terms so firm and plain as to command their assent and to justify ourselves in the independent stand we are compelled to take" (pentru a face cunoscut omenirii bunul simt asupra subiectului, in termeni atat de simpli si fermi incat sa merite incuvintarea si sa ne justifice pozitia independenta pe care suntem constransi sa o luam).
De aici evenimentele s-au miscat cu repeziciune. Pe 1 iulie, Congresul a discutat rezolutia lui Lee si a aprobat-o a doua zi, astfel ca pe 4 iulie 1776 Congresul a aprobat Declaratia de Independenta si a ordonat sa fie tiparita si distribuita. Timothy Matlock, un iscusit caligraf, a pregatit o copie pe care 56 de delegati au semnat-o.
Aceasta este istoria pe scurt a evenimentelor care au precedat scrierea unuia din cele mai frumoase texte din istorie, Declaratia de independenta a Statelor Unite ale Americii. Voi transcrie un fragment al textului si pentru a nu altera frumusetea cuvintelor lui Thomas Jefferson voi pastra limba originala:

"When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

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